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What Is IaC Security?

Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Security Definition

Infrastructure as code security is the embedding of consistent, scalable cloud security coverage that helps to detect misconfiguration in code early in the development life cycle to prevent vulnerabilities at runtime. It enables organizations to enforce security measures in IaC templates throughout their life cycle, be it in code repositories, continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD) tools, or as early as the developer IDE.

IaC security should: 

  • Scan code for configuration errors, vulnerabilities, and insecure deployments violating security standards 
  • Benchmark configuration checks against security best practices and compliance controls
  • Alert and guide developers/engineers on remediation and secure deployments 
  • Enforce guardrails by failing pull requests and CI/CD builds with critical vulnerabilities directly within the tools they use and blocking potential violations where relevant


Why Is Infrastructure as Code Security Important?

Business requirements and DevOps adoption are seeing applications delivered and deployed faster than ever before. This trend can have a negative effect on both the compliance and security realms, where regulations and cyberthreats are constantly evolving.

When developers are unaware of the compliance requirements—or these requirements are inaccessible—vulnerabilities can be introduced into the codebase. Organizations need to combat this by bridging the gap between security and DevOps teams as the responsibility and accountability for security rapidly shifts towards DevOps engineers.

The problem stems from a reliance on manual processes and siloed tools that can’t keep pace with development velocity and continuous release cycles. You need to give your developers a frictionless, collaborative platform that allows them to quickly identify and fix issues so that they can enforce consistent security policies and compliance—without sacrificing speed.

Before we further discuss the importance of IaC security, let’s take a look at exactly what IaC is and why it matters for modern operations.


What Is Infrastructure as Code?

Infrastructure as code (IaC) is descriptive code, commonly written in markup (JSON, YAML, etc.) or proprietary languages (e.g., Terraform HCL), used for provisioning and managing cloud infrastructure resource configurations. Infrastructure as code provides increased productivity and agility, reduces human error, provides standardization for deployment, and maintains version control of the infrastructure configuration.

IaC tools come in many forms—from dedicated infrastructure management platforms to configuration management tools to open source, there is a plethora of options available. Some of the most popular choices include HashiCorp Terraform, AWS CloudFormation, and Azure Resource Manager.


Benefits of IaC

IaC allows you to quickly and easily provision and manage cloud resources and automate deployment processes by codifying cloud infrastructure. This negates the need for time-consuming manual configuration and reduces the risk of human error. Plus, it enables engineers to institute version control, which allows DevOps teams to increase productivity and scale operations.

The greatest benefit of IaC is the unprecedented level of scalability it offers. It’s that same benefit, however, that also serves to make IaC more vulnerable—let’s cover this in a bit more detail.


What Security Risks Are Associated with IaC?

IaC offers operational benefits, such as quick provisioning of IT infrastructure in a declarative approach rather than an imperative approach. However, its impact on security presents a major challenge due its potential impact on resources.

If a single resource is manually misconfigured, the scope of the mistake is limited to that resource alone—but making one mistake in code that can be used to automatically provision 100 or more resources presents a far greater security risk.

Achieving comprehensive IaC security is a challenge for organizations. It can bring a great many benefits, but it can also create dangerous vulnerabilities. 


5 IaC risks

Infrastructure as code may leave your organization at risk of:

  • A broad attack surface: IaC misconfigurations can expand the attack surface (e.g., security group misconfigurations that leave assets inadvertently exposed to the internet).
  • Data exposure: IaC templates could contain vulnerabilities and insecure default configurations that could lead to data exposure (e.g., secrets embedded in Terraform code that is checked to source control).
  • Excessive privileges: Developers often use privileged accounts to provision cloud apps and the underlying infrastructure resources, which can lead to unauthorized access to sensitive data or a potential breach.
  • Compliance violations: Organizations need to comply with a number of regulatory standards, such as GDPR, HIPAA, PCI DSS, and SOC2. If policy guardrails based on these standards aren’t enforced in the IaC process, it can lead to compliance failures. 
  • Cross-functional team friction: Developers are accelerating deployment to deliver quality products with tight deadlines. Their security counterparts, on the other hand, have little visibility into the code and little control over committed changes. As such, applying security guidelines, either based on regulatory compliance, best practices, or company policy, becomes a real challenge without bridging the gap between DevOps and SecOps.


We’ve made one thing clear: IaC can greatly benefit your organization, but it comes with security risks you can’t ignore. To get the most out of IaC, you need a cybersecurity partner that has built a solution with DevSecOps in mind, mastered cloud data protection, and above all, will help you get the most out of your IaC investment. That partner is Zscaler.



How Can Posture Control Help?

Posture Control is a cloud native application protection platform (CNAPP) designed to help your development and security teams work together to build a comprehensive infrastructure as code (IaC) security program from the ground up.

Key Capabilities

Visibility and Control

  • Identify issues and visualize the security and compliance postures of your code repository
  • Easily investigate and remediate violations by category, policy severity, compliance controls, tags, and status
  • Get detailed visibility about the code violation, code repository, pull request, CI/CD build and other critical information to trace the issue back to the source


Continuous Assessment

  • Continuously scans for IaC templates (e.g., Terraform HCL, AWS CloudFormation templates, Kubernetes app manifest YAML files and Helm charts) as code is updated or pushed in code repositories and builds are triggered in CI/Cd systems
  • Scan code for security policy violations as early as possible (developer IDE) to provide the developer with immediate feedback
  • Assess IaC templates for security issues, noncompliance, and other misconfigurations or insecure default configurations (e.g., missing encryption, identity and credential tracking) for excessive permissions, publicly exposed resources as workloads, storage buckets, weak security group roles, and more
  • Continuously compare observed configuration with the desired state to report, notify, and remediate unexpected configuration drift 
  • Scan code committed to code repositories and fail the build in CI/CD systems when critical vulnerabilities are identified


Enhanced Productivity 

  • Improve developer experience by identifying issues with the right context, integrated security guidance, and recommendations to resolve problems/issues natively in their DevOps ecosystems tools such as IDEs, code repositories and CI/CD systems
  • Automate IaC security and embed it into existing processes to reduce friction between developers and security, operations, and compliance team members (a DevSecOps best practice)



  • Integrate with ticketing tools to generate near-real-time alerts, allowing you to notify and alert the right owners and teams with the necessary context on issues, impact, and action required to remediate an issue

Reimagine cloud native application security with a 100% agentless solution built to identify hidden risks across the cloud life cycle caused by a combination of misconfigurations, threats, and vulnerabilities. Learn more about Posture Control


Additional Resources

  1. Shift Left and Shift Down with CWPP
  2. Securing Infrastructure by Embedding Infrastructure As Code (IaC) Security into Developer Workflows
  3. The Growing Importance of the Cloud Native Application Protection Platform (CNAPP)
  4. Top 5 Benefits of a Cloud Native Application Protection Platform